Tubal ligation

There is a variety of birth control methods that protect against unexpected pregnancy. However, if a woman wants a permanent birth control , there is only one choice — tubal ligation. It is very suitable for couples, who for some reason are not planning to have more children. Permanent female sterilization is a safe, effective and permanent method of birth control. Therefore, it is vital to consider all the pros and cons before the procedure, since tubal ligation reversal is possible but very expensive, complicated, and has a relatively low rate of success.

What is it?

Tubal ligation is a surgical procedure during which the fallopian tubes are cut and sealed in order to make it impossible for the egg to travel down from the tubes to the uterus. It also stops sperm from entering the uterus and the egg and sperm cannot meet each other, hence, fertilization cannot happen. It is a female sterilization method and permanent mean of contraception .

This surgical procedure is highly effective immediately and has the efficiency rate in contraception of 99.5%.

How it works

Each ovary produces an egg every second month. The fallopian tubes carry this egg from the ovaries to the uterus every month and, if it meets sperm, a woman is able to conceive. During tubal ligation each of the fallopian tubes is cut and sealed with rings, bands, clips, or seared with a caustic. An egg then cannot reach the uterus and sperm is prevented from reaching an egg, and hence fertilization cannot occur.

Surgical procedure

Tubal ligation is a minor surgical procedure that is usually performed in an inpatient or outpatient department. If a woman is suitable for the procedure, it can be performed when a patient is sure that she is not pregnant. Female fertilization can be performed under general or local anesthesia.

Most of tubal ligation procedures are performed through endoscopic surgery. This allows a minimally invasive intervention and takes a shorter time to recover afterwards. It involves a small incision close to the navel through which a thin endoscopic camera is inserted. Another incision is made above the pubic hairline through which a surgical endoscopic instrument, that can cut and seal the tubes, is inserted. It takes about half an hour for the surgery to be complete.

A patient is advised to take two or three days off. She is also recommended reduce physical activities and exercise for more than a week. Sexual activities are allowed once a woman feels comfortable, generally, after a week. If surgery was performed through vagina, a patient is told not to insert anything into the vagina for at least two weeks in order to avoid infection.

Some women decide to have tubal ligation performed straight after pregnancy and childbirth. It is very convenient, since a woman is already in the hospital and this procedure does not prolong hospital stay after childbirth. If a woman has a Caesarean section performed, it is very easy for a gynecologist to cut the fallopian tubes through the same procedure.

Therefore if you decide to be sterilized after pregnancy, talk to your doctor and inform him/her about your decision prior to the childbirth.

Cost of tubal ligation

The cost of tubal ligation usually ranges from $1,200 to $6,000. It depends very much upon the state, region and private clinic. Some insurance providers cover at least part of the surgery cost, therefore, you should check with your insurance for more information.

An average price of tubal ligation:

 New York  $4.500
 California  $3.400
 Texas  $2.500
 Tennesse  $2.500
 Massachusetts  $4.400
 Florida  $3.900

Tubal ligation reversal

Once a woman decides she does not want to have any more children, she can choose tubal ligation as a permanent method of birth control . However, sometimes the decision may change with time. There are various reasons why a woman would want to regain her fertility. The main ones are new marriage after divorce or death of the partner, death of a child and others. This is actually possible once tubal ligation reversal is performed.

What is tubal ligation reversal?

Tubal ligation reversal is a major surgery for a woman to regain her fertility. It is performed under general anesthesia and takes about 2 – 3 hours. The procedure is done by microsurgical technique. A doctor unclamps and reattaches the fallopian tubes, so that they are passable again. The surgeon also places an implant into the tubes in order for them to be just as functional as prior to tubal ligation. Once this type of surgery is performed, a woman’s fallopian tubes begin to function again and an egg can go down the tubes to the uterus, where it is able to meet with sperm and fertilization can occur.

Tubal reversal just like tubal ligation is a serious surgery, and therefore requires in-patient care and a longer stay in hospital after it. A woman should take time off work for about a week and should only practice light physical activity and exercise for about two weeks after the procedure. A woman is allowed to restart her sexual life once she feels comfortable and happy about it. Complete recovery is considered to be after two or three months after surgery.

While microsurgery technique is applied, the procedure may be performed under local anesthesia. This allows a shorter time of surgery and fewer complications.

Good candidates for tubal ligation reversal

Even though a woman decides to have tubal reversal, she might not be able to undergo this surgery due to a few factors. The doctor should decide whether the fallopian tubes can be reversed or not. The surgeon usually performs laparoscopy in order to decide if a woman is suitable for tubal ligation reversal.

The doctor generally evaluates a woman’s fallopian tubes. The surgeon also needs to know, how tubal ligation was performed. Also, a woman’s age and her general health status should be considered before final decision whether a woman is a good candidate for the procedure or not. Women, older than 40, should consider thoroughly their decision to undergo the reversal because they have very slight chances for successful operation.

Alternatives of tubal ligation reversal

Even if a woman is not able to have her fallopian tubes reversed, there is an alternative method for her to be able to conceive. This alternative method to get pregnant is in vitro fertilization (IVF). The overall time from the beginning of hormonal therapy and embryo transfer is from one to two months. However, the possibility to become pregnant and give birth to a child is significantly lower, compared to tubal reversal, and varies from 39% to 50%.

Complications of tubal ligation reversal

As with any surgery, the tubal ligation reversal procedure includes certain risks and side effects. Side effects and complications are very rare but they can still occur from time to time. Mostly, the risk for complications depends upon the qualification of a surgeon and the type of the surgery. Laparoscopic surgery technique is a less invasive procedure, which largely decreases the risk for possible side effects. The most common complications include inflammation at the surgery site, infection and bleeding. Complications due to anesthesia are also possible though very rare. The risk for these complications may be reduced by applying local anesthesia.

Tubal ligation reversal cost

Most of insurance companies do not cover the cost of tubal reversal procedure. However, check with your insurance company policies to find out whether insurance covers the costs of tubal ligation reversal or not. Total price includes the surgeon’s fee, the hospital fee for the use of the operating room and ambulatory care facility, and the fee for anesthesia. The price is between $5,000 and $10,000. Higher prices are in New York State, whereas lower prices are in California. Bear in mind that a single cycle of in vitro fertilization usually costs more than $10,000.

Recommended e-books:

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  2. Conception secrets – how to get pregnant fast
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Advantages and complications of tubal ligation

Female sterilization is an ideal choice for woman, who is looking for effective and permanent birth control method. However, tubal ligation also has some risk and complications.


Tubal ligation is a permanent method of birth control offering immediate and highly effective protection against unexpected pregnancy. Women, who are sterilized, have the same sexual desire and function since the hormone levels remain the same as before, and can enjoy more spontaneous sex life. This mean of birth control has very few side effects. It is cost-effective in a long term and requires no daily attention. Moreover, tubal ligation effectively protects women, whose lives would be in danger if they were to conceive.


Tubal ligation is a surgical procedure and therefore has the risks associated with surgical intervention and anesthesia. Unlike male sterilization, vasectomy , it is a more complicated and risky procedure. It involves possible discomfort at the surgical site.

Tubal ligation does not offer any protection against sexually transmitted diseases (STD’s), therefore, a condom should be used.

Every woman should understand that female sterilization is a permanent method of birth control , and therefore, it is very important to consider thoroughly before deciding to go through the procedure. Although reversal is technically possible, it is not always possible in practice, and when performed, only 60% to 80% of women are able to conceive a baby. Hence, some women may have regrets for what the have done.

Risks and complications

As with any surgery, tubal ligation has possible risks and side effects, although they are found to be minimal. Complications are rare but still possible, and involve infection and uterine perforation, which is very seldom.

Even though the method has a very high efficiency rate in protection against pregnancy and pregnancy is not likely to occur, if a woman gets pregnant she has a higher risk to have ectopic pregnancy.

A woman has a risk to experience abnormal bleeding and bladder infections after surgery.

Some physicians report that women have post-tubal ligation syndrome, which involves irregular and painful periods, bleeding in a mid-cycle, or no menstrual periods. Although some doctors claim there is no proof for the existence of such syndrome, some extra research should be done to confirm it or not.

Pregnancy after tubal ligation

About 20% of all women undergoing tubal ligation regret the decision and want to restore their fertility. One of the most frequent questions is whether it is possible to become pregnant and give birth to a child or not after the reversal is performed. 6% of women, whose fallopian tubes were ligated, decide that they really want to have more children and, therefore, undergo tubal ligation reversal.

Effectiveness of the procedure

Women, who undergo common tubal ligation reversal procedure, usually have a possibility from 70% to 80%  become pregnant within a year after the procedure. Microsurgical techniques tend to have higher rates for success, showing that about 95% of women, who undergo microsurgical tubal reversal, are able to get pregnant and give birth to a baby within one year after the surgical procedure.

These numbers are for women, who are at the age under 40. One should know that the possibility to become pregnant after the procedure decreases when a woman gets older. Smaller rates of success are for women over the age of 40, however, these rates are still higher than in vitro fertilization ones.


Even though the success rates of microscopic tubal ligation reversal are rather high, there is a greater risk of having ectopic pregnancy, when a fetus grows outside the uterus, after the reversal procedure. However, this possibility is still very low and a woman usually is able to regain her fertility, become pregnant and give birth to a child within one year after tubal ligation reversal procedure.

Recommended e-books:

  1. Become pregnant
  2. Conception secrets – how to get pregnant fast
  3. Uncover answers to infertility
  4. Pregnancy success